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What are the types of nucleic acid extraction?
As one of the most basic experiments in molecular experiments, nucleic acid extraction is the basis of almost all experiments. No matter the subsequent cloning, PCR, qPCR, library building and sequencing, etc., the nucleic acid is required to proceed smoothly. Today we will briefly understand the types of nucleic acid extraction.
What is nucleic acid?
Nucleic acid is a biological macromolecular compound composed of many nucleotides. It is one of the most basic substances of life. It is divided into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA can be divided into ribose according to different functions. somatic RNA (rRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA).
Nucleic acids are widely present in all animal and plant cells, microorganisms, and nucleic acids in organisms, often combined with proteins to form nucleoproteins. Different nucleic acids have different chemical compositions, nucleotide sequences, etc.
DNA is mainly concentrated in the nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts, while RNA is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm.
Nucleic acid extraction type
1. Total RNA extraction
Of the total RNA, 75-85% is rRNA (mainly 28S-26S/23S and 18S/16S rRNA), and the rest is composed of mRNAs and small RNAs with different molecular weights and nucleotide sequences, such as tRNA, 5S rRNA, It consists of 5.8S rRNA, miRNA, siRNA, small nuclear RNA (snRNA) and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA).
2. miRNA extraction
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, highly conserved RNA molecules, such as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), that regulate the molecular expression of their cognate mRNAs by base-pairing with them to prevent expression through various mechanisms. They have become key regulators for development, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell cycle.
3. Genomic DNA extraction
For gene structure and function research and gene diagnosis, the length of the obtained fragment is usually not less than 100-200kb. In the process of DNA extraction, various factors that cause DNA breakage and degradation should be avoided as much as possible to ensure the integrity of DNA and lay the foundation for subsequent experiments.
4. Plasmid extraction
The plasmid extraction method removes RNA, separates the plasmid from bacterial genomic DNA, and removes proteins and other impurities to obtain relatively pure plasmids.
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